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In honor of her source of inspiration—her daughter Barbara—Handler named the Barbie doll Barbara Millicent Roberts.
Ironically, though, the real Barbie was 17 by the time the doll debuted, and therefore was not particularly interested in being associated with the child's toy.
It is very strange to have a doll named after you. When it came time to create Barbie, Handler assigned Mattel designer Jack Ryan to the task.
A Yale alum, Ryan worked for an aerospace company prior to joining the team at Mattel. In fact, he helped design the government's Hawk and Sparrow III missile systems before helping to create Barbie.
At that point, though, the designer's relationship with Mattel was rocky, as he and Handler couldn't agree on who actually came up with the idea for the doll.
Barbie was introduced to the world on March 9, , at the New York Toy Fair. They accused Mattel of copying elements of her design—especially her hip joint—without their permission.
A year later, Mattel bought the rights to Lilli. According to Mattel's official Barbie website , Barbie is from the fictional town of Willows, Wisconsin.
An early version of the doll is even featured in the Wisconsin Historical Museum. According to Time , Mattel became the first year-round sponsor of The Mickey Mouse Club in TV commercials were a novel advertising approach for toys at the time, and Mattel is largely credited with being the first company to broadcast commercials aimed at kids.
Considering the steady stream of TV commercials Mattel has produced for Barbie since her debut, it's not too surprising some celebrities got their big breaks via Barbie commercials.
The original Barbie was available to purchase as either a blonde or a brunette. But according to Forbes , "the blonde doll sold so much better, the brunette was soon relegated to the back of the shelf.
The original Barbie had pursed lips that made her look quite serious. It wasn't until that Mattel introduced Malibu Barbie , the first version of the doll to smile with her teeth.
Her pearly whites really sparkled against her suntanned skin! Ken made his debut on March 11, , making Barbie a bit of a cougar.
Handler named Barbie's male counterpart after her son, Kenneth Handler —so even though the dolls are supposed to be dating, they are named after siblings.
There was no top in sight. The next year's model was a bit more modest: The version of Ken came with a red-and-white striped shirt , though he still wore it open.
During her break from Ken, Barbie hooked up with a "Cali Guy" named Blaine Gordon , who made his debut during the Toy Fair.
Blaine was very popular, and no new Ken dolls were produced for two years after Barbie's new beau hit shelves. The first Barbie doll wore a black-and-white zebra striped swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail , and was available as either a blonde or brunette.
The doll was marketed as a "Teen-age Fashion Model," with her clothes created by Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson.
The first Barbie dolls were manufactured in Japan, with their clothes hand-stitched by Japanese homeworkers. Around , Barbie dolls were sold during the first year of production.
Louis Marx and Company sued Mattel in March The company additionally claimed that Mattel "falsely and misleadingly represented itself as having originated the design".
Mattel counter-claimed and the case was settled out of court in Ruth Handler believed that it was important for Barbie to have an adult appearance, and early market research showed that some parents were unhappy about the doll's chest, which had distinct breasts.
Barbie's appearance has been changed many times, most notably in when the doll's eyes were adjusted to look forwards rather than having the demure sideways glance of the original model.
Barbie was one of the first toys to have a marketing strategy based extensively on television advertising, which has been copied widely by other toys.
It is estimated that over a billion Barbie dolls have been sold worldwide in over countries, with Mattel claiming that three Barbie dolls are sold every second.
Barbie products include not only the range of dolls with their clothes and accessories, but also a large range of Barbie branded goods such as books, apparel, cosmetics, and video games.
Barbie has had a media franchise starting with Barbie in the Nutcracker in , when she began appearing in a series of animated films.
She is also a supporting character in the My Scene films as well as in the Pixar films Toy Story 2 and Toy Story 3. Barbie has become a cultural icon and has been given honors that are rare in the toy world.
In , a section of Times Square in New York City was renamed Barbie Boulevard for a week. The exhibit featured Barbie dolls over two floors as well as works by contemporary artists and documents newspapers, photos, video that contextualize Barbie.
In , the artist Andy Warhol created a painting of Barbie. In , The Andy Warhol Foundation then teamed up with Mattel to create an Andy Warhol Barbie.
Outsider artist Al Carbee took thousands of photographs of Barbie and created countless collages and dioramas featuring Barbie in various settings.
From her early days as a teenage fashion model, Barbie has appeared as an astronaut, surgeon, Olympic athlete, downhill skier, aerobics instructor, TV news reporter, vet, rock star, doctor, army officer, air force pilot, summit diplomat, rap musician, presidential candidate party undefined , baseball player, scuba diver, lifeguard, fire-fighter, engineer, dentist, and many more When Barbie first burst into the toy shops, just as the s were breaking, the doll market consisted mostly of babies, designed for girls to cradle, rock and feed.
By creating a doll with adult features, Mattel enabled girls to become anything they want. In , Barbie celebrated her 50th birthday. The celebrations included a runway show in New York for the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week.
Barbie's full name is Barbara Millicent Roberts. In a series of novels published by Random House in the s, her parents' names are given as George and Margaret Roberts from the fictional town of Willows , Wisconsin.
She has an on-off romantic relationship with her boyfriend Ken "Ken Carson" , who first appeared in A news release from Mattel in February announced that Barbie and Ken had decided to split up,  but in February , they were hoping to rekindle their relationship after Ken had a makeover.
Barbie has had over 40 pets including cats and dogs, horses, a panda , a lion cub, and a zebra. She has owned a wide range of vehicles, including pink Beetle and Corvette convertibles , trailers, and Jeeps.
She also holds a pilot 's license, and operates commercial airliners in addition to serving as a flight attendant.
Barbie's careers are designed to show that women can take on a variety of roles in life, and the doll has been sold with a wide range of titles including Miss Astronaut Barbie , Doctor Barbie , and Nascar Barbie Mattel has created a range of companions for Barbie, including Hispanic Teresa , Midge , African American Christie, and Steven Christie's boyfriend.
Barbie's siblings and cousins were also created including Skipper , Todd and Stacie twin brother and sister , Kelly , Krissy , and Francie.
Barbie was friendly with Blaine , an Australian surfer, during her split with Ken in From the start, some have complained that "the blonde, plastic doll conveyed an unrealistic body image to girls.
Criticisms of Barbie are often centered around concerns that children consider Barbie a role model and will attempt to emulate her.
One of the most common criticisms of Barbie is that she promotes an unrealistic idea of body image for a young woman, leading to a risk that girls who attempt to emulate her will become anorexic.
According to research by the University Central Hospital in Helsinki, Finland, she would lack the 17 to 22 percent body fat required for a woman to menstruate.
Although Barbie had been criticized for its unrealistic-looking "tall and petite" dolls, the company has increating been offering more dolls set to more realistic standards in order to help promote positive body image.
Complaints also point to a lack of diversity in the line. Starting in , it produced Hispanic dolls, and later came models from across the globe.
For example, in , it introduced "Cinco de Mayo Barbie" wearing a ruffled red, white, and green dress echoing the Mexican flag. Hispanic magazine reports that:.
Among these were Cinco De Mayo Barbie, Spanish Barbie, Peruvian Barbie, Mexican Barbie and Puerto Rican Barbie. She also has had close Hispanic friends, such as Teresa.
However, she was produced using the existing head molds for the white Francie doll and lacked African characteristics other than a dark skin.
The first African American doll in the Barbie range is usually regarded as Christie, who made her debut in In , Mattel created a focus group with African American children and parents, early childhood specialists, and clinical psychologist, Darlene Powell Hudson.
Instead of using the same molds for the Caucasian Barbies, new ones were created. In addition, facial features, skin tones, hair texture, and names were all altered.
The body shapes looked different, but the proportions were the same to ensure clothing and accessories were interchangeable. Part of the reason for this change was due to declining sales.
Mattel teamed up with Nabisco to launch a cross-promotion of Barbie with Oreo cookies. Oreo Fun Barbie was marketed as someone with whom young girls could play after class and share "America's favorite cookie.
Critics argued that in the African American community, Oreo is a derogatory term meaning that the person is "black on the outside and white on the inside," like the chocolate sandwich cookie itself.
The doll was unsuccessful and Mattel recalled the unsold stock, making it sought after by collectors. In May , Mattel introduced Share a Smile Becky , a doll in a pink wheelchair.
Mattel announced that it would redesign the house in the future to accommodate the doll. In , Barbie has also been criticized for a children's book called Barbie: I Can Be A Computer Engineer , which portrayed Barbie as a game designer who was not technically sophisticated and needed boys' help to do game programming.
The company then promptly responded to criticism on gender role stereotypes by redesigning a " Computer Engineer Barbie " who was a game programmer rather than designer.
In July , Mattel released Teen Talk Barbie , which spoke a number of phrases including "Will we ever have enough clothes?
One of these phrases was "Math class is tough! Although only about 1. In October , Mattel announced that Teen Talk Barbie would no longer say the phrase, and offered a swap to anyone who owned a doll that did.
In , Mattel introduced a line of pregnant Midge and baby dolls, but this Happy Family line was quickly pulled from the market due to complaints that she promoted teen pregnancy, though by that time, Barbie's friend Midge was supposed to be a married adult.
In September , the Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia outlawed the sale of Barbie dolls and franchises, stating that they did not conform to the ideals of Islam.
The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice warned, "Jewish Barbie dolls, with their revealing clothes and shameful postures, accessories and tools are a symbol of decadence to the perverted West.
Let us beware of her dangers and be careful. Fulla is not manufactured by the Mattel Corporation although Mattel still licenses Fulla dolls and franchises for sale in certain markets , and as of January the "Jewish" Barbie brand is still available in other Muslim -majority countries including Egypt and Indonesia.
In November , Mattel received criticism over the book I Can Be a Computer Engineer , which depicted Barbie as being inept at computers and requiring that her two male friends complete all of the necessary tasks to restore two laptops after she accidentally infects her and her sister's laptop with a malware -laced USB flash drive.
In March , stories appeared in the media claiming that the hard vinyl used in vintage Barbie dolls could leak toxic chemicals, causing danger to children playing with them.
The claim was described as an overreaction by Joseph Prohaska, a professor at the University of Minnesota Duluth. A modern Barbie doll has a body made from ABS plastic, while the head is made from soft PVC.
In July , Mattel released "Barbie Video Girl", a Barbie doll with a pinhole video camera in its chest, enabling clips of up to 30 minutes to be recorded, viewed, and uploaded to a computer via a USB cable.
The Rockers: Out of This World The Sensations: Rockin' Back to Earth My Scene: Jammin' in Jamaica My Scene Goes Hollywood: The Movie MCA Records, Inc.
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