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JIM MCGAUGH: Their performance will be at least 80 percent correct, and maybe percent correct, depending upon the particular individual. NARRATOR: One of the best memories McGaugh has ever tested belongs to someone you might recognize: actress Marilu Henner, from the hit show Taxi.
MARILU HENNER Memory Study Participant : I knew, as a very young child, I had a very good memory. You know, they called me "Ms.
Memory," "Ms. Univac," the "Memory Kid," things like that. NARRATOR: Name-calling aside, they're not geniuses.
In fact, on average, they have normal I. JIM MCGAUGH: They are not superior in other forms of learning, like book learning, standard laboratory learning tasks and so on.
BOB PETRELLA: I think a misconception, as I think you probably know, that people have is that they think it's some kind of autistic savant thing, that we're using some type of mathematical calculation, like in Rain Man—yeah, definitely not Rain Man.
McGaugh has scanned over a dozen H. For example, an area in the brain associated with memory, the uncinate fasciculus, is more active in H.
JIM MCGAUGH: There are some differences in the brains. They're statistically significant. But they have not given us a pattern such that we can say, "This is the neurobiological basis of H.
That's the open question. NARRATOR: And that's where Jake comes in. He is the youngest person ever discovered with H. Over the next year, they'll test his memory while doing hundreds of scans.
NARRATOR: When they are finished, they will have perhaps the most comprehensive picture ever of a child's brain. KATHLEEN MCDERMOTT: We're getting loads and loads of data on him.
It's very, very exciting. And to do this in a normal person, in this comprehensive a way, would be very, very exciting, but to be able to do it on a child that has particularly unique abilities is extra special.
NARRATOR: Then they will compare Jake's scans to other children's to see if they can unlock the secret of what makes his memory so extraordinary.
NICO DOSENBACH Washington University in St. Louis : It's a chance of a lifetime. You, you know, you actually, I don't think…You can't write a grant saying we're going to go look for someone like him, 'cause it's…you'll never find him, right?
NARRATOR: The hope is that this little boy's brain can help answer some big questions about how our memory works. But we don't know if you or I have that information in us, but we just can't remember it, or if it just doesn't get encoded into our brain function, in the first place.
NARRATOR: The mystery with Jake and the other H. JIM MCGAUGH: There is potential there that we will learn something truly new and important about the functioning of the most complicated and interesting known structure in the universe, and that's our brain.
And the most important thing it does is learn and remember. NARRATOR: But what exactly is a memory? Amazingly, this simple question has stumped thinkers for ages.
Until the s, few clues emerged, and then came a single patient who would change everything. JIM MCGAUGH: Well, when I was a young researcher, learning was learning and memory was memory, and it was just, you know a thing that happens.
And then along came the findings of Brenda Milner and H. NARRATOR: H. After a childhood bicycle accident, Molaison began to suffer severe epileptic seizures.
MATT WALKER: To try and quell those seizures, neurosurgeons performed an operation where they removed the parts of his brain that they thought were creating those seizures.
NARRATOR: Much of what they removed came from a part of the brain called the hippocampus. After the surgery, his seizures were gone, but there was an alarming side effect.
MATT WALKER: From that point forward, he could no longer make any new memories. He was what we call "densely amnesiac. NARRATOR: It could only mean one thing: the hippocampus must be the part of the brain responsible for creating new long-term memories.
This in itself was a breakthrough, but that was just the start. NARRATOR: Brenda Milner wanted to know, despite his amnesia, could he still have some form of memory?
BRENDA MILNER McGill University : He was a very nice person. He was very cooperative. He, fortunately for us, he liked doing tests, he liked puzzles.
NARRATOR: So, she came up with a puzzle for H. BRENDA MILNER: If you try this, it's jolly difficult, but, but normal subjects, with practice, a few trials, learn to do this thing,.
NARRATOR: Because H. He shouldn't be able to learn anything. BRENDA MILNER: How's he going to do? I didn't know. I had no idea.
NARRATOR: And, in fact, every time Milner asked him to train, he claimed he'd never done the task before. But his performance betrayed him: he got better and better until….
BRENDA MILNER: I was so excited, because this is a breakthrough. He can't remember the events of his life, but he can learn motor skills. NARRATOR: The fact that H.
DAN SCHACTER Harvard University : We had to leave behind the notion that there was just one kind of memory. We now knew that there are different kinds of memory and those different kinds of memories depend on different parts of the brain.
NARRATOR: Knowing where memories are in the brain is one thing, but how do they get there? How does a long-term memory get written in the brain in the first place?
These are the questions that have driven Nobel Prize winner Eric Kandel for over 60 years. It all started back in Vienna, on his ninth birthday. ERIC KANDEL: I received a marvelous little toy car that I drove with great pleasure through our small apartment.
NARRATOR: Two days later was Kristallnacht, the infamous "Night of Broken Glass. ERIC KANDEL: On November 9th, there was a knock on the door and two Nazi policemen came in and said, "Pack all your things.
That was a very painful experience. ERIC KANDEL: Everyone who went through the Holocaust…there are memories that you can never forget.
NARRATOR: Kandel wanted to know: how did that experience become a memory he would carry with him for life? ERIC KANDEL: That got me interested in psychology and psychoanalysis.
And when I got interested in that, I said, what's the central question in psychoanalysis? It's memory, how we recall things.
NARRATOR: But where to start? His biggest lead was Milner's early work with H. But how do they get there? Could there be a physical mechanism on the cellular level?
ERIC KANDEL: So, I thought I would record from single cells in the hippocampus, and those cells would be so unique, they would speak to me about memory storage.
ERIC KANDEL: Our colleagues were euphoric, but we didn't learn a darn thing about learning and memory. So, I realized one needed to take a reductionist approach.
And I thought I would use a simple animal, with a simple nervous system, simple behavior, and try to study that.
NARRATOR: Enter Aplysia californica, a giant sea slug, with one of the simplest nervous systems in the animal kingdom. ERIC KANDEL: One of the great giants in the field thought I was throwing my career away.
NARRATOR: He thought if he could just isolate the cellular changes that occurred when Apylsia learns simple tasks, it would be the key to understanding our memory.
KELSEY MARTIN University of California, Los Angeles : Humans have neurons, sea slugs have neurons. They're not that different, right?
Even the at the level of D. The same fundamental kinds of changes should underlie memory. NARRATOR: To test his hypothesis, Kandel's first step was to create a memory in the sea slug.
To do that, he trained it to fear a light touch. NARRATOR: The siphon is the slug's water spout. When it is touched, it also withdraws its gill slightly, as a protective reflex.
But pair that touch with a mild shock, you get a much stronger reaction. And do it repeatedly. Now, when you touch the animal's siphon again, even weeks later, without a shock, it reacts as if it got shocked.
Somehow it remembers that that light touch means shock. It has formed a long-lasting memory. Kandel had a hunch. If he could just replicate that touch experiment with single cells, he could see exactly what was going on to make a memory.
ERIC KANDEL: We could take the cells out of the animal, and put it into cell culture, and reconstruct the neural circuit. We could look at each level and see what happens with, with long-term memory.
KELSEY MARTIN: It was this huge breakthrough. What Eric Kandel really did was he took this phenomenon of memory and turned it into a biological question: what are the changes that are happening that give rise to memory?
NARRATOR: To find out, Kandel's team extracted two neurons from the sea slug. This is a sensory neuron from its siphon, and that's a motor neuron from the tail.
They are connected by a single synapse. NARRATOR: Then, to simulate a long-term memory, just like with the live animal, Kandel repeatedly stimulated the sensory neuron.
And when he did, suddenly, something magical happened. New synaptic connections started to grow. ERIC KANDEL: This made us realize, for the first time, that long-term memory actually involves an anatomical change in the brain, whereby new connections are being formed.
And that just really blew us away the first time we saw it. JOE LEDOUX: That was a phenomenal discovery, because it showed us, for the first time, that memory involves a structural physical change in the brain.
That became the foundation for our whole conceptual basis for understanding memory. NARRATOR: After repeated stimulation, the neuron's nucleus starts to pump out these tiny glowing specks called m.
They're about to travel down to the synapse, with instructions to build new connections. ERIC KANDEL: And you see this magnificent voyage that this particle, which is carrying this m.
NARRATOR: When it gets there, the instructions are released, and the new connections grow, seen here in green.
ERIC KANDEL: We're seeing a memory being formed in front of your eyes. These anatomic changes occur in your brain, when you learn and remember something.
NARRATOR: From sea slugs to humans, these physical changes are considered the biological basis of memory. RODDY ROEDIGER: It's an article of faith, at this point, that the mechanisms that he's uncovered are fundamental ones to learning and memory for all of us.
NARRATOR: Kandel's work launched new way of probing memory, one grounded in biology and built around a simple premise: the growth of new connections is what allows a memory to persist for days, months, even years.
But that was just a piece of the picture, a basic mechanism for how memory works at the level of single cells. Even in a sea slug, a real life memory is made of about 50 neurons out of 20, In a human, it's more like tens of thousands out of billion.
Somehow, it's this network that stores a memory, which begs the question, where, exactly, does a particular memory live in us? To this day, that remains a mystery, but we aren't without clues.
In the last 25 years, new imaging tools have allowed a generation of explorers to chart memory in the human brain. And today, we can finally begin to draw a rough map of where some of our most treasured memories live.
For example:. NICO DOSENBACH: She was like, "This is something that people do that like each other. MAN 2: Her friend whispered to me, "Make a move," and walked faster.
And, all of the sudden, Laura and I were alone in, kind of, a grove of trees. It felt like, suddenly, everything was different.
MATT WALKER: The question is, where is the memory? And what we have come to understand, there isn't a nicely packed memory that's, sort of, folded up like a letter and placed inside of an envelope, in one specific area of the brain.
Different parts of memory are coded in different locations in the brain. Think about your first kiss. The visual elements are coded at the back of the brain, in the visual cortex; the smell components are coded in the olfactory cortex, just above the nose; and you can also remember the postural positions, the motor positions, the motoric, the kinesetic, elements are coded up here, in the motor cortex; the emotional elements are coded in deep-brain structures like the amygdala.
And, together, it is the hippocampus that is going to grab ahold of those brain anatomical areas, those balloons of information, and it is going to bind them together and produce a memory that you are capable of remembering.
NARRATOR: So, if different parts of a memory live in different parts of the brain, and we know that the growth of new connections between neurons is important for storing them, that would suggest that every memory is physically tattooed onto our brains.
So, how come we don't remember them all? KELSEY MARTIN: So the question is, if there are these structural changes that give rise to memory, but memories are changeable and dynamic, how can that be?
Think about it for a moment. A memory only comes alive when you recall it. What happens in your brain each time you recollect a past experience? That's what Karim Nader wondered.
His quest for answers started when he was a grad student at one of Kandel's lectures. KARIM NADER McGill University : Eric Kandel came and gave this brilliant talk.
He had beautiful pictures, showing synapses could grow over time. The work is very elegant. It took everyone's breath away. KARIM NADER: Why would all of this happen just once?
Wouldn't it be cool if it all happened again when you recalled the memory? NARRATOR: If Kandel's work helped establish that memories can't form without new proteins that build new connections, what happens to those connections when you remember something?
STEVE RAMIREZ: The underlying dogma was that, when you formed a memory, it was filed away in your brain, and that's it. NARRATOR: So when you remember your first kiss, you pull out that book, look at it, and put it back.
Though it may fade over time or get lost in the stacks, the original story, or memory, is always still there. Nader wondered, could this really be true?
Is it possible that just the act of recalling the memory could rewrite the story? To find out, Nader designed an experiment.
JOE LEDOUX: When Karim told me he wanted to do that experiment, I probably said something like, "Don't do it. Don't waste your time. NARRATOR: Just like Kandel's sea slugs, the rats quickly learn to fear the tone alone.
They have formed a long-term memory that the tone predicts shock. So, every time it hears the tone…. KARIM NADER: So you see, even though there's no shock, the animal's freezing.
It's afraid. NARRATOR: We know the rats' brains have built new connections to store the memory. But what happens to those connections when the rat recalls the memory?
To find out, Nader first plays the tone to remind the rat of his fear, and when he freezes,…. NARRATOR: The compound is anisomycin, a drug known to block the proteins needed to build the connections that store new memories.
But Nader's rats have already formed the memory; they're just recalling it. If memory consolidation really is like a book in a library, the drug should have no effect.
The rats' brains should have built a permanent memory, and they should still freeze when they hear the tone. KARIM NADER: So, if the memory is wired in the brain, this drug should have absolutely no effect.
KARIM NADER: You would think the animal should be freezing, if it still had the memory there, but now it is acting as if the memory has been erased from its mind.
NARRATOR: …as if it never learned to fear the tone in the first place. The memory appears to be gone. KARIM NADER: My jaw just dropped.
I couldn't believe it. So I ran into my supervisor's office going "[Expletive] I can't [expletive] believe this happened. NARRATOR: Because a drug known to block the formation of new memories also blocked them during recall, it means the act of remembering must make the memories vulnerable to change.
KELSEY MARTIN: It's not this, "you have a memory, you encode it and it's stuck there. ERIC KANDEL: Nader's discovery that any time you recall a memory you essentially disrupt it was a significant advance.
STEVE RAMIREZ: It turns out, memory is not at all, actually, like putting a book away in the library of the brain, but it's more like bringing up a file on your computer and constantly modifying that file.
NARRATOR: The theory is every time you recall something, you have pull it up off the hard drive to view it. For it to return to long-term memory, you have to hit "save" and reconsolidate the memory, by creating new proteins to essentially rewire the memory into your brain.
DANIELA SCHILLER: Imagine something precious in a box. And then each time you take it out, it changes a little bit. And then you put it back.
Then take it out, changes a little bit. That's how your memory works. NARRATOR: The idea that the simple act of remembering could make your memories vulnerable to change transformed our understanding of memory.
Within a few years, Nader's findings were replicated in dozens of species and led to over a thousand experiments, and even, reportedly, inspired the movie Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind.
But what if this isn't just the stuff of movies? What if it's possible to use reconsolidation in humans? Perhaps to erase certain memories in all of us, like the ones that keep you up at night.
WOMAN 2: I can't tell you the last time I've been in a pool, the last time I owned a bathing suit. But, I mean the water gets, probably right here, and it's like "huu huu uhh uhh.
SASHA COHEN: Terrified; if I see a spider, I don't want to come near it. I'm really scared of spiders, or, at least, I used to be.
But now, I am just completely relaxed, sitting here with a tarantula. It is really crazy. Now it's more critical than ever to distinguish fact from fiction.
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Please try again. Report a Problem. Cancel Submit Report. Sponsored By:.Memory Hackers Scientists are learning how we can edit memories—and delete our worst fears. Premiered: 2/10/16 Runtime: 7 Topic: Body + Brain Body & Brain Nova. 12/15/ · This is one of those memory hacks that seems obvious, but you’d be surprised the number of people that don’t follow it. The best way to take notes. There is an urge to copy everything and get all the information down. But our study shows this is totally ineffective. 2/10/ · Memory Hackers. Season 43 Episode 7 | 53m 7s | Video has closed captioning. Watch Preview. Memory is the glue that binds our mental lives. Without it, we’d be prisoners of the present, unable to Content Rating: TV-PG.